What are the Risk Factors & Causes of Childhood Cancer?
Today’s post is some brief information around the Risk Factors and Causes of Childhood Cancers.
Although tons of research is being done and childhood cancer survival rates have gone up in the past few decades, there are still too many Children with Cancer dying due to late diagnosis, and the incidence of invasive cancer has climbed by 29% in the past twenty years, which is why research into the causes of Childhood Cancer has been stepped up.
Please share far and wide to raise Childhood Cancer Awareness so that more parents can be aware of the Early Warning Signs of Childhood Cancer and get their child to a doctor earlier should they exhibit any of the signs.
The Best Defence against Childhood Cancer is Awareness and Early Diagnosis
A risk factor is anything that affects the chance of contracting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors.
Lifestyle-related risk factors such as being overweight, eating an unhealthy diet, not getting enough exercise, and habits like smoking and drinking alcohol play a major role in many types of cancer in adults.
Lifestyle factors generally take many years to influence cancer risk, however, and they are therefore not thought to play much of a role in childhood cancers.
A few environmental factors, such as radiation exposure, have been linked with certain types of childhood cancers. Some studies have also suggested that some parental exposures (such as smoking) might increase a child’s risk of certain cancers, but more studies are needed to explore these possible links.
So far, most childhood cancers have not been shown to have any outside causes.
In recent years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how certain changes in our DNA can cause cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells that makes up our genes – the instructions for nearly everything our cells do.
We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we look. It also influences our risks for developing certain diseases, including some kinds of cancer.
Some genes (parts of our DNA) control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die. Genes that help cells grow, divide, or stay alive are called oncogenes. Others that slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumour suppressor genes. Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes.
Some children inherit DNA changes (mutations) from a parent that increase their risk of certain types of cancer. These changes are present in every cell of a child’s body, and can often be tested for in the DNA of blood cells or other body cells. Some of these DNA changes are linked only with an increased risk of cancer, while others can cause syndromes that also include other health or developmental problems.
Most childhood cancers, however, are not caused by inherited DNA changes. They are the result of DNA changes that happen early in the child’s life, sometimes even before birth. Every time a cell prepares to divide into 2 new cells, it must copy its DNA. This process isn’t perfect, and errors sometimes occur, especially when the cells are growing quickly. This kind of gene mutation can happen at any time in life and is called an acquired mutation.
Acquired mutations start in one cell. That cell then passes the mutation on to all the cells that come from it. These acquired DNA changes are only in that particular individual’s cancer cells and will not be passed on to his or her children.
Sometimes the causes of gene changes in certain adult cancers are known (such as cancer-causing chemicals in cigarette smoke), but the reasons for DNA changes that cause most childhood cancers are not known. Some may have outside causes like radiation exposure, and others may have causes that have not yet been found. But many are likely to be caused by random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.
Posted on 14 September, 2016, in Blog and tagged cancer, Cancer Awareness Month, Child Cancer Awareness, childhood cancer, Childhood Cancer Awareness, Children with Cancer, Little Fighters Cancer Trust. Bookmark the permalink. 1 Comment.